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December 2021

Review of 2021 Form 5498

Deadlines to Furnish
The due dates for the 2021 Form 5498 are: furnish copy B to the IRA accountholder by May 31, 2022 and file Copy A with the IRS also by May 31, 2022. If you file electronically, you must comply with the filing specifications set forth in Publication 1220.

What’s New For 2021? Form 5498
New repayment code. The IRS has added code “BA” for reporting a repayment of a qualified birth or adoption distribution. See the instructions for Box 14a. Repayments and Box 14b. Code, later.

Account Number
1. On the bottom left there is an “Account Number” box. The IRA custodian is required to insert an account number in this box when filing more than one Form 5498 for the same person. If your institution wants to earn some bonus points with the IRS, you will complete this box even though it is not required. IRS instructions state the account number must be unique. This instruction that this number must be unique can be confusing. It must be unique with respect to this particular IRA account older. If a person has 3 IRAs each one must have an account number which is different. The account numbers could be 01, 02 and 03. The purpose of the account number is to identify which Form 5498 is being corrected when there have been multiple 5498 forms prepared for a person and a correction is now being submitted to IRS. It is best if the account number is not based on the person’s SSN.

2. In Box 7 only one of the 4 boxes must be checked to indicate the type of IRA. A person who has a traditional IRA, SEP IRA and Roth IRA would need to be furnished three 5498 forms.

Contribution Amounts
3. Box 1. IRA Contributions (other than amounts in boxes 2-4, 8-10, 13a and 14a). Enter the amount of the annual contributions made on or after January 1, 2021 through April 18, 2022 as designated for 2021. The IRA custodian is to report the gross amount of the annual contributions even if such contributions are excess contributions, or will be later recharacterized. A traditional IRA contribution, which is not properly reported in one of the other traditional IRA boxes as discussed below, is to be reported in box 1. For example, if a person tries to roll over $28,000, but does so on day 70 and does not furnish a late rollover certification and the IRA custodian learns of this fact prior to filing the current year’s Form 5498, then the IRA custodian must report this $28,000 in box 1. This same procedure would apply if somehow non-IRA funds had been mistakenly transferred into an IRA. If an excess contribution is treated as a contribution in a subsequent year under section 219(f)(6), do not report it on Form 5498 for the subsequent year. It has already been reported as a contribution on Form 5498 for the year it was actually contributed.

4. Box 2. Rollover Contributions. Enter the amount of the rollover contributions made on or after January 1, 2021 through December 31, 2021. Made means received by the traditional IRA custodian.

A late rollover contribution made pursuant to a late rollover certification is reported in box 13a and not box 2.

A rollover may either be an indirect rollover or a direct rollover.

A direct rollover occurs when an employer plan issues the check to the IRA custodian on behalf of the individual. By definition, a direct rollover cannot occur between IRAs. Employer plan means a qualified plan, section 403(b) plan or a governmental section 457(b) plan. The funds attributable to a nonspouse beneficiary of such plans are eligible to be directly rollover to an inherited IRA and would be reported in Box 2.

An indirect rollover means the paying plan (could be an IRA or an employer plan) issues the distribution check to the individual who then makes a rollover contribution by the 60 day deadline. A 60 day indirect rollover may occur between two traditional IRAs, two SEP-IRAs, or between a traditional IRA and a SEP-IRA or vice versa.

Remember that nonspouse IRA beneficiaries are ineligible to roll over a distribution from one inherited IRA and redeposit it into another inherited IRA.

These contributions may be any of the following.
• A 60-day rollover between Roth IRAs or between other types of IRAs.
• A direct or indirect (within 60 days) rollover from a qualified plan, section 403(b) plan, or governmental section 457(b) plan.
• Any qualified rollover contribution as defined in section 408A(e) from an eligible retirement plan (other than an IRA) to a Roth IRA.
• A military death gratuity.
• An SGLI payment.

For the rollover of property, enter the FMV of the property on the date you receive it. This value may be different from the value of the property on the date it was distributed to the participant.

5. Box 3. Roth IRA Conversion Amount. This box will be completed when a conversion contribution is made to a Roth IRA from a traditional IRA, SEP-IRA or SIMPLE-IRA. Do not include the rollover of non-Designated Roth funds from a 401(k) or similar plan into a Roth IRA. Such rollover contributions are to be reported in box 2.

6. Box 4. Recharacterized Contributions. The IRS instructions are very brief, “Enter any amounts recharacterized plus earnings from one type of IRA to another.” If a person had made an annual contribution he or she may elect to recharacterize it as adjusted by earnings or losses. The total amount recharacterized is to be reported in box 4. Although the IRS instructions use the term, “plus earnings, the IRS should use the term, “plus or minus earnings or losses.”

7. Box 5. Fair Market Value of Account. The IRS instructions for this box are also very brief, “Enter the FMV of the account on December 31.”

The IRS added a caution to self-directed and trust IRAs as follows: “Trustees and custodians are responsible for ensuring that all IRA assets (including those not traded on established markets or with otherwise readily determinable market value) are valued annually at their fair market value.”

The instruction to report the FMV as of December 31 applies whether there is a living IRA account-
holder or an inheriting IRA beneficiary.

If the IRA accountholder or inheriting beneficiary is alive as of December 31, the individual closed his or her IRA during the year by taking a total distribution and he or she made no “reportable contribution”, then the IRA custodian is not required to prepare and file the Form 5498. However, if the IRA accountholder or inheriting beneficiary died during the year, the IRA custodian will need to prepare a final Form 5498 for the deceased IRA accountholder or inheriting beneficiary as discussed below.

With respect to a deceased accountholder or a deceased inheriting IRA beneficiary, the IRS gives the IRA custodian two options. Option #1 - report the FMV as of the date of death. Option #2 - report the FMV as of the end of the year in which the decedent died. This alternate value will usually be zero because the IRA custodian will be reporting the end of year value on the Form 5498’s for the beneficiary or beneficiaries. If Option #2 is used, the IRA custodian must inform the executor or administrator of the decedent’s estate of his or her right to ask for the FMV as of the date of death

If the IRA custodian does not learn of the individual’s death until after the filing deadline for the Form 5498 (i.e May 31), then it is not required to prepare a corrected Form 5498. However, an IRA custodian must still furnish the FMV as of the date of death if requested to do so.

8. Box 6. Life Insurance cost included in box 1. An IRA custodian will leave this box blank or will insert a 0.00 since it is only to be completed if there was a contribution to an IRA endowment contract as sold by an insurance company a long time ago.

9. Box 8. SEP Contributions. Any SEP contributions made to the IRA custodian during 2021 are to be reported in box 8. Such contributions could have been for 2020 or 2021. Contributions made in 2022 for 2021 are to be reported on the 2022 Form 5498.

10. Box 9. SIMPLE Contributions. Any SIMPLE-IRA contributions made during 2021 are to be reported in box 9. Such contribution could have been for 2020 or 2021. Contributions made in 2022 for 2021 are to be reported on the 2022 Form 5498.

11. Box 10. Roth IRA Contributions. Any Roth IRA contributions for 2021 are to be reported in box 10 as long as made between January 1, 2021 and April 18, 2022.

12. Box 11. Check if RMD for 2022. An IRA custodian is required to check this box if the traditional IRA SEP-IRA or SIMPLE-IRA accountholder attains or would attain age 72 or older during 2022. The instructions do not discuss whether or not this box is to be checked for an inheriting traditional IRA beneficiary. It should not be checked for an inherited IRA. Completing this box is necessary only if the IRA custodian is required to prepare a 2021 Form 5498 for a person. This box is not checked with respect to an individual who died during 2021 and who would have attained age 72 or older during 2021 had he or she lived.

13. Boxes 12a (RMD date) and 12b (RMD Amount). An IRA custodian’s use of these two boxes is optional, it is not mandatory.

Under current IRS procedures, the IRS does not require the traditional IRA custodian to furnish it with the RMD amount. The law is unsettled whether or not the IRS has the legal authority to require that an IRA custodian furnish the RMD amount. Since the IRS would like to be furnished this information, the IRS has added boxes 12a and 12b to the Form 5498.

The approach adopted by the IRS is that an IRA custodian by completing boxes 11, 12a and 12b on the Form 5498 and furnishing it to the IRA accountholder will meet the requirement that it must furnish a RMD Notice by January 31. The IRS instructions do permit the IRA custodian to furnish to the IRA accountholder a separate Form 5498 with the only information being furnished is the information for boxes 11, 12a and 12b.
14. Box 13a. Postponed contributions and late rollover contributions. Our federal tax laws are complicated and the reporting of certain special IRA contributions is complicated.

There is a limit as to the number of boxes which are present on the Form 5498 (IRA Contributions) to be used to inform the IRS and the taxpayer that a taxpayer has made various types of IRA contributions. There are standard contributions and then there are special contributions such as postponed contributions, late rollover contributions and repayment contributions.

Boxes 13 and 14 are to be completed to report special contributions such as postponed contributions, late rollovers and repayments of disaster distributions.

The IRS has furnished the following instructions for completing the 3 boxes that make up Box 13. Box 13 reports postponed contributions and certain special late rollovers.

Some IRA owners are entitled to make an IRA contribution for a prior year in addition to make a current year contribution. Report the amount of the postponed contribution.

If the IRA owner makes a prior year contribution for more than one year, each year’s prior year postponed contribution must be reported on a separate Form 5498.

Some IRA owners will make late rollover contributions pursuant to the IRS procedures set forth in Rev. Proc. 2016-47. Report the amount of the late rollover contribution.x

Box 13a. This is titled Postponed/late Contribution in the 2019-2021 instructions. The IRS should change the title to somehow make clear it is a late rollover contribution.

If an IRA owner makes both a postponed contribution and a late rollover contribution, there must be two separate 5498 forms prepared.

Unless the IRS has issued special guidance, there cannot be two late rollover contributions in the same year because of the once per year rollover rule. However, a person could have made a rollover of a qualified plan loan off-set amount. A separate Form 5498 would need to be prepared.

For 2019 and subsequent years there are two important changes with respect to reporting certain rollovers. Reports rollovers made with respect to qualified plan loan off-sets and for affected taxpayers in a federally declared disaster area. Note that there is no discussion for the reporting of a person’s rollover after the IRS has returned levied funds. Most likely the IRS will provide such guidance later.

Box 13b. Year

Enter the year for which the postponed contribution was made if a postponed contribution.
Leave blank if a late rollover contribution or a rollover of a qualified plan loan off-set amount.

Note that the IRS does not provide guidance for reporting the rollover of IRA funds levied by the IRS but returned to the taxpayer.

Box 13c. Code

Enter the applicable reason code for a postponed contribution.

For service in a combat zone enter the appropriate code as set forth at end of this guidance.

Enter FD for affected taxpayers of a federally declared disaster.

Enter PO for taxpayers who made a rollover of a qualified plan loan off-set amount.

Enter SC for taxpayers who made a late rollover certification.

15. Box 14 reports repayment contributions.

A person can make three types of repayments, a repayment of a qualified reservist distribution, a designated disaster distribution or related to a qualified birth or adoption distribution.
Box 14a. Repayments.
Enter the amount of the repayments.
Box 14b. Code.
Enter QR for the repayment of a qualified reservist distribution.
Enter DD for the repayment of a federally designated disaster distribution.
Enter BA for the repayment of a qualified birth or adoption distribution.

The instructions don’t expressly state that separate forms are to be prepared if a person would have both transactions, but it is implied by having separate codes.

See the instructions for special codes applying to certain individuals serving in combat zones, hazardous duty zones or who have served in an active support area.

Electronic filers. You may request an automatic waiver from filing Forms 5498 for combat zone participants by submitting Form 8508, Request for Waiver From Filing Information Returns Electronically. Once you have received the waiver, you may report all Forms 5498 for combat zone participants on paper. Alternatively, you may report contributions made by the normal contribution due date electronically and report the contributions made after the normal contribution due date on paper. You also may report prior year contributions by combat zone participants on a corrected Form 5498 electronically or on paper.

16. Box 15a. FMV of certain specified assets. Completion of Boxes 15a and 15b is mandatory for 2021 and subsequent years. If you are an IRA custodian or trustee with IRA assets of which the fair market values are not readily determinable, you should review the following.

Box 15a is titled FMV of certain specified assets.
Box 15b will be used to furnish info on the type of the investment. It is titled “Codes.”

The IRS has developed an administrative approach so that it can better administer IRAs that hold non-market assets. Such IRAs may either be trust IRAs or self-directed custodial IRAs. It appears the IRS will choose to audit more IRAs holding non-market assets than those holding only market assets. Without a doubt, it is more likely that prohibited transactions occur with respect to IRAs holding non-market assets than market assets.

Box 5 will still be used to report the FMV of the entire IRA. The total FMV will equal the FMV of the easy to value assets plus the FMV of the hard to value assets. An asset where there is a readily available market to determine an asset’s value is an easy to value asset. When there is no readily available market to be used to determine as asset, this is a hard to value asset. It is also known as a non-market asset.

Box 15a will be used to report the FMV of all of the non-market assets. These are the assets which are not readily tradable on an established U.S. or foreign securities market or option exchange or that do not have a readily available FMV. The IRS does not define what is meant by “does not have a readily available FMV.” As for box 5, the IRS states that the FMV must be determined annually. The amount in box 15a may be the same as in box 5, but most likely will be less as will be the case when there are both easy to value and hard to value assets in the same IRA.

The FMV of the “market” assets may be determined by subtracting the FMV of the non-market assets (box 15a) from box 5.

In box 15b, one or two letter codes must be inserted to identify the type or types of the non-market investment. If only one code applies, insert that one code. If only two codes apply, then insert both codes. However, if more than two codes apply, then enter a Code H. Code H means there are more than two non-market assets held in the IRA. From the perspective of the IRA accountholder, he or she may prefer to have at least three hard to value assets rather than just one or two because when an “H” is used the IRS does not know specifically what assets are owned and would need to obtain this information from additional communications with presumably the IRA accountholder.

There are 7 identifying codes:
A – Stock or other ownership interest in a corporation that is not readily tradable on an established U.S. or foreign securities market.
B – Short or long-term debt obligation that is not traded on an established securities market.
C – Ownership interest in a limited company or simular entity (unless the entity is traded on an established U.S. or foreign securities market.
D – Real Estate
E – Ownership interest in a partnership, trust, or similar entity (unless the entity is traded on an established U.S. or foreign securities market).
F – Option contract or similar product that is not offered for trade on an established U.S. option exchange or established foreign option exchange.
G – Other asset (i.e. not described in A-F) that does not have a readily available FMV.
H – More than two types of assets (listed A through G are held in this IRA.

In summary, the IRS requires an IRA custodian/ trustee to furnish certain information regarding hard to value assets. The IRS will presumably use this information to determine if it wishes to gather additional information. The deadline to furnish the 2018 Form 5498 to the individual and the IRS is Friday, May 31, 2019. The IRA custodian/trustee wants to know wants it has prepared as many 5498 forms as the rules require and that each form has been prepared correctly.

17. Duty To Prepare/Furnish Corrected Form 5498. An IRA custodian is required to prepare a corrected form 5498 as soon as possible after it learns there is an error on the original form as filed. The IRS furnishes the following example. “If you reported as rollover contributions in box 2, and you later discover that part of the contribution was not eligible to be rolled over and was, therefore, a regular contribution that should have been reported in box 1 (even if the amount exceeds the regular contribution limit), you must file a corrected For 5498.